Thursday, October 16, 2008

What is network?

What is network?

An interconnected computer systems and also peripherals and devices with the purpose of data communication and information exchange are call network.
Connecting one or more than one computer to each other in such a way that they can share their hardware and software resources called network.
Objectives of network:-
• Using network facilities we can share hardware like cd-drive, printer and other memory devices
• Network provides security to data files.
• Faster data communication without using external memory.
Components of network:-
1. NIC [ Network Interface Card ]
• A chip based circuit board used to connect computer to network or server
• A card is activities by installing it’s driver software
• A card is connect to I/O bus in a vacant slot
• The card contains physical interface for connectivity between computer’s internal and external resources
2. HUB
• A network device where the information flow is accumulated and then distributed various groups and users.
• It can be used between users on the same to LAN and the users on different LAN also [local area network].
• It serves as the central point where cables from all nodes come together.
• HUBs are available in different shapes and size it also provides limited management facility
• Dumb Hub (passive hub):- this type of hub only use for the data communication and there is no management facility.
• Intelligent Hub (Active hub);- this type of hub used for communication and also decision making it also has management facility.

3. Bridge
• A device that supports LAN to LAN communication is bridge.
• It will remember all the network addresses on both side of LANs and regulate the flow of traffic.

4. Router
• Router interconnects two or more physical and logical network and work at network layer.
• It distinguishes data packets according to protocol like, TCP/IP, FTP, HTTP etc.
• It will remember matrices to determine the optimal path of workstation in computer network.

5. Gateway
• A shared connection between LAN and a larger system such as mainframe computer or a large packet switching network whose communication protocols are different.
• It usually is slower than bridge or a router, it is a communication of hardware or software.
• It has its own processor and memory used to perform protocol conversion.

• A server is an important component of a dedicated server network.
• The server runs on network operating system and offers network services to users at their individual workstation.
• These services include file storage securing, users management, network commands and many things.
• The most common type of server is file server
• When client computer send request to server , server will give respond to that computer.

7. Workstation
• When computer connect to a network it becomes a node on the network and is called a work station or client.
• It has its own local operating system e.g. DOS, win 98, win XP.
• Its job is to execute program files retrieved from the network and the server’s job is to deliver those files to the work station.

8. Cabling system
• In network cabling system is a media used to connect server and network station together.
• In case of wireless network that uses radio or infrared technology where cables are not required.
• There is several kind of cables used in networking like twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber optics cable.

Advantages of networking:-
 File sharing
 Resource sharing
 Database sharing
 Creation of workgroup using user management facility
 Centralized management system.
 Provide security in corporate structure.
 Ability to use network software.
 Ability to use e-mail.

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